Variable frequency drive basics theory variable speed drives. A variablefrequency drive is a device used in a drive system consisting of the following three main subsystems. Save energy, improve control and reduce motor wear using ac drives, also known as variable speed drives vsd, inverters, or variable frequency drives vfd. A vfd is capable of adjusting both the speed and torque of an induction motor. The following is an excerpt from understanding variable frequency drives and appropriate applications, a whitepaper by steve bruno, product marketing manager, oilinjected screw compressors 30kw 90kw. A variable frequency drive changes the capacity of the artificial lift system by varying the motor speed. In the hvac industry, there are several types of compressors associated with the refrigeration systems. Until the advent ofthe ac variable frequency drive in the late 1950s,mechanical devices remained the predominant way to control the speed ofthe motor. While all variable frequency drives vfds control the speed of an ac induction motor by varying the motors supplied voltage and frequency of power, they all do not.
Eddy current drives are less efficient than all other types of variable frequency drives. Tmeic has been very active in developing the most advanced high capacity voltage. This paper covers what a variable frequency drive vfd is, the different types of vfds, their functions, and their benefits. Variable frequency drives are also known as adjustable frequency drives afd, variable.
These applications include single motor driven pumps, fans and compressors, as well as highly sophisticated multidrive machines. Guidelines for application, installation, and troubleshooting describes how vfds can help reduce energy consumption, increase the reliability and life of pumping systems, and generate significant cost savings. The frequency of the drive determines the how fast motor should run while the combination of voltage and frequency decides the amount of torque that the. Different types of methods to recover regenerative energy. There are many applications in oil and gas industry that use electrical motors. Siemens drive technology siemens electromechanical drive systems help you increase uptime and minimize total cost of ownership tco. There are large number of loads and each load has its own specific requirements. A vfd converts the 5060hz fixedfrequency and fixedvoltage. Variable frequency drives ressources naturelles canada. A variablefrequency drive vfd is a device that controls the voltage and frequency that is being supplied to a motor and therefore controls the speed of the motor and the system it is efficiency is improved. There are a few different types of variable frequency drives. Ac drive, the speed of a conventional ac motor can be varied through a wide speed range from zero through the base 60 hz speed. There are two major types of variable frequency drive on the market. Types of electrical drives electrical motors power modulators.
Wikipedia typically, the power supply to the variable frequency controller will start out as 3phase ac power. Types of electrical drives has the following major parts. This is part i of a new series on how variable frequency drives work and how they are used in common air compressor applications. A variablefrequency drive vfd or adjustablefrequency drive afd, variablevoltagevariablefrequency vvvf drive, variable speed drive vsd, ac drive, micro drive or inverter drive is a type of. Types of variable frequency drives vfd faqs precision. Variable frequency drives basic operating principles and core maintenance considerations by. These applications include single motor driven pumps, fans and compressors, as well as highly sophisticated multi drive machines. Dc drives are still prevalent in the drive industry, making up some 40% of the market. Variable frequency operation hence the speed of the motor depends on the applied frequency, as well as the winding arrangement, and a little on the load. One of the most important developments in recent years has been the advancement of variable frequency drive vfd technology. Some types of singlephase motors or synchronous motors can be advantageous in some situations, but. Energy is supplied to the drive system from the power. Control method there are three basic methods to control a variable frequency drive.
When the electricity returns to a variable frequency drive, the dc voltage of the variable frequency drive fig. Variable frequency drives a comparison of vsi versus lci systems introduction tmeic is a leader in the innovative design and manufacture of large ac variable frequency drive systems. But, early ac variable frequency drives vfd were bulky unreliable in critical applications and very expensive compared to the alternatives at the time. Variable frequency drive applications in hvac systems. Ac motor, main drive controller assembly, and driveoperator interface 210211 ac motor.
Whatever the name, a vfd is a type of motor controller that drives and controls an electric motor. Frequency converters control electromagnetic induction. Different types of vfds are available in the electronics and electrical market ranging from small motor related applications to the high power induction. Variable speed drive vsd this more generic term applies to devices that control the speed of either the motor or the equipment driven by the motor fan, pump.
Also covered are issues related to vfds, some solutions to vfd issues, and how vfds can. A variable frequency drive vfd is a device that controls the voltage and frequency that is being supplied to a motor and therefore controls the speed of the motor and the system it is efficiency is improved. Our drives and plcs can help you operate your motors more efficiently and reliably. These variablefrequency drives vfds accurately control the speed of standard ac induction or synchronous motors.
These advances have resulted in variable frequency drives or vfds or variable speed frequency drives competing with traditional dc motor control in applications where they were previously too expensive or lacked the power to perform properly. This drive system can transform a given type of energy, usually electrical, into mechanical energy, which is then used by the working machine. Different types of vfds are available in the electronics and electrical market ranging from small motor related applications to the high power induction motors. Variable speed drives an overview sciencedirect topics. The frequency determines the motor rpm and by controlling the ac frequency the motor rpm can be controlled. A variablefrequency drive vfd is a system for controlling the rotational speed of. Variable frequency drives vfds popular speed control devices used in industrial, commercial and residential applications. Variable pitch drive a belt and pulley drive where the pitch diameter of one or both pulleys is adjustable.
Variable speed drives vsd variable speed drives are used to control the speed of rotation of electronic motors in many industrial applications. Our drives, also sometime called variable speed drives vsd or variable frequency drive vfd, let you run your motors at the speed or with the torque that we required for each process. Nov 06, 20 eddy current drives are less efficient than all other types of variable frequency drives. A variable frequency drive vfd is a simply a motor controller that drives an electric motor, generally a three phase squirrel cage induction motor, by varying the frequency and voltage supplied to the electric motor. With more than 50 years of experience in variable speed drive business, driveswarehouse stocks a large selection of ac drives, dc drives, variable frequency drives vfd, variable speed drives, adjustable speed drives, adjustable frequency drives, combo ac motor and drive combination and dc motor and drive combination in a wide range of. Ac variable frequency drive for use with ac induction motors. Characteristics of ac drives of the several types of ac variable frequency drives available, only the pwm voltage source, sinecoded type is commonly in use. The current source type is fairly common at 100 hp and higher and does offer some advantages. The process also yields overvoltage spikes and harmonic current distortions. If this dc voltages surpasses a certain specified value 370vdc for 200v class, rectifying diodes or igbt of the variable frequency drive part are damaged. Typically these are pumps, ventilators, compressors, belt conveyors, rolling mills, paper machines and an innumerable amount of different machines used in manufacturing and other industries. Variable frequency drives a comparison of vsi versus lci. Motor controllers ac variable frequency drives type variflex3. Huge energy savings potential operating centrifugal fans, pumps and compressors vary frequency of electrical.
For general purpose drives over 5 hp they are essentially the only type available. The most common type of packaged vf drive is the constantvoltage type. A variable frequency drive vfd is a type of motor controller that drives an electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage supplied to the electric motor. Variable frequency drives basic operating principles and. Eaton s variable frequency drives, also known as adjustable frequency drives, are designed and manufactured for applications requiring ultracompact solutions. Wound rotor motors are a special type of induction motor with copper windings. With vfds, speed control with full torque is achieved from 0 rpm through the maximum rated speed and, if required, above the rated speed at reduced torque. A variable frequency drive vfd, also known as ac variable speed drive, ac variable frequency drive, vfd inverter or variable voltage variable frequency drive, is a type of motor controller that drives an electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage of its power supply. Nearly all eddy current motor drive systems are obsolete today.
There are applications, in particular very large, highpower, lowspeed drives, where dc will be used for many years to come. Other names for a vfd are variable speed drive, adjustable speed drive, adjustable frequency drive, ac drive, microdrive, and inverter. A variable frequency drive can be found operating ventilation systems, pumps, conveyors and machine tool drives, on board ships, it is used for bow thrusters, azipod system etc. Vfd control also has the capacity to control rampup and rampdown of the motor during start or stop, respectively. Some common aspects to loads are discussed and specific requirements of some common loads in later chapters.
Components are designed to work together seamlessly, delivering the most costeffective, right sized drive system for any application. Other names for a vfd are variable speed drive, adjustable speed drive, adjustable frequency drive etc. By changing the power frequency supplied to the motor and thus motor rpm, the capacity of the pump is changed in a linear relationship. In this presentation, we will be covering variable frequency drives vfds and. Ac and dc variable speed drives application considerations pdf. Vfd wiring best practices introduction with a growing need for saving energy, variable frequency drives are being used in many general purpose applications where they are controlling 3phase electric motors. If the frequency is reduced, the voltage must be reduced or the magnetic flux will. The portfolio includes a wide range of low voltage variable speed drives, medium voltage ac drives, motors, scalable plcs and a selection of hmis. Therefore in order to control the motor speed it is necessary to control the frequency of the supply. Variable frequency drives a variable frequency drive vfd is a system for controlling the rotational speed of analternating current ac electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor. Initial cost of an vfd is greater than the cost of other types of variable speed control equipment. A variable frequency drive, or vfd, is often referred to as an inverter. Types of electrical drives electrical motors power. Understanding variable frequency drives learn about the various types of vfds, and what their purpose and advantages are.
Variable frequency drive an overview sciencedirect topics. Variable speed compressors or variable frequency compressors are compressors equipped with vfds. Our vfds handle both low voltage and medium voltage applications, with a wide range of power ratings. Ac motor, main drive controller assembly, and driveoperator interface 210211. The ac electric motor used in a vfd system is usually a threephase induction motor. Power transformers vsd transformers converter duty. Thereby there is increasing population of ac digital drives replacing dc drives and simplifying mechanical drives 1. Variable frequency drives vfd, aka variable speed drive vsd have been available for use with a wide range of applications for over 20 years. Variable frequency drive vfd this device uses power electronics to vary the frequency of input power the motor, thereby controlling motor speed. All of them are viable components for a vfd application. Three basic types of variable frequency drives offer certain advantages as well as disadvantages depending on your motor application. Operation from constantvoltage, constantfrequency utility supply 287 5. Eddy current motor drives were designed and manufactured decades ago and there are very few manufacturing facilities across the globe that still use them in production. Vfd performance has improved so much in the recent past, that dc drives are often replaced with ac machines that provide added benefits.
The most common type of variable frequency drive is known as a vhz volts per hertz, and are applied to applications such as fans, pumps, air compressors, and other related applications where high starting torque is not required. Jan 29, 2019 vfd is the short form of a variable frequency drive or adjustable frequency drive. However, this frequency conversion process causes 2% to 3% loss as heat in the vfd caloric energy that must be dissipated. The ac signal will be rectified and converted to a dc signal. They more accurately use a series of pulses which varies in frequency in a technique called pulsewidth modulation pwm. Variable frequency drives a variablefrequency drive vfd is a system for controlling the rotational speed of analternating current ac electric motor by controlling the frequency of the electrical power supplied to the motor. In two positions, the voltage is zero, ie, when all the phases are connected to the same dc bus, either negative or positive. Many types of variable speed drives have been used over the years, starting with dc drives used primarily in industrial applications, and mechanical drives that varied sheave diameter. Types of variable speed frequency drives ier services. Ac drives dc drives variable frequency speed drives vfd. Variablefrequency drives vfds control the speed and torque of ac motors by varying the frequency of the voltage to the motor.
Pdf on may 1, 2019, remus dobra and others published variable frequency drive vfd. This type of power system enables large amounts of energy to be efficiently transmitted over great distances. Ac power supply into a dc supply, using an integrated rectifier. A new guide for the pump industry, variable frequency drives. Wound rotor motors are a special type of induction motor with. With the use of the vfd not only saves energy but also saves the life of motors by providing a soft start and advanced process control. Of course, variable frequency drives vfds and ac motors are now offering an alternative to dc drives and motors, but there are many other applications where dc drives are extensively used including crane and hoists, elevators, spindle drives, winders, paper production machines, crushers, etc. Vfd is the short form of a variable frequency drive or adjustable frequency drive. A oneofakind guide on variable frequency drives vfds for the pump industry. A vfd may also be called an ac drive, adjustable frequency drive, variable speed drive, adjustable speed drive vsd, variable frequency inverter vfi, or microdrive. Though there are different types of vfds or ac drives, all of them are works on same principle that converting fixed incoming voltage and frequency into variable voltage and frequency output.1578 175 539 521 263 829 1141 463 764 1415 608 294 635 1575 1369 1566 167 504 1044 835 186 855 1330 630 1058 458 332 794 556 377 998 1267 494 658 266 1453