Introduction human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. While doing this he talks about the individual and societal repercussions, what it means to be an individual and human rights. To the extent that the research necessary to develop human cloning will likely cause the deaths of human beings, the cost is unacceptably high. Human cloning could potentially lead to genetic altering of children to be what people could call a pure race. Here is a discussion about the ethical issues that have arisen concerned with cloning humans. Arguments supporting research cloning the main use of research cloning is to create human embryonic stem cells hesc. Currently there are two types of cloning under debate cloning to produce children, and cloning for biomedical research. Otherwise there is no use of cloning of any animal if it is not of any use. The legal and ethical issues of cloning that make it controversial. The french parliament on july 9, 2004 adopted a new bioethics law that allows embryonic stem cell research but considers human cloning a crime against the human species.
The main ethical issues associated with therapeutic cloning. Essay on what are the ethical issues of human cloning. A ninety day exercise in practical and professional ethics. However, there are other ways to treat infertility. Wilmut discussed the applicability of animal cloning data to human cloning.
Process for cloning is similar to as of dolly the sheep. Bioethicists,policy makers,and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning. Human reproductive cloning is currently the subject of much debate around the world. Arguments supporting research cloning the main use of research cloning.
Introduction to human cloning human cloning controversy. Ethics of human cloning has become an important issue in recent years. Even before wilmuts announcement, human cloning had been made illegal in nearly all countries in europe and had been condemned by the council of europe council of europe 1986. On a smaller scale i do not see the need for cloning to take place. Reproductive cloning experiments would be punishable by up to 20 y in prison. It seems clear to all of us, however, given the current stage of science in this area, that. Cloning will not provide the claimed medical treatments the poor availability of human oocytes, the low efficiency of the nuclear transfer procedure, and the long populationdoubling time of human es cells make it difficult to envision this therapeutic cloning becoming a routine clinical procedure. The ethical issues with reproductive cloning include genetic damage to the clone, health risks to the mother, very low success rate meaning loss of large numbers of embryos and fetuses, psychological harm to the clone, complex altered familial relationships, and commodification of human life. A first approach relies on a form of moral casuistry. Human cloning represents a lack of respect 64 for nature brent blackwelder 10. The possibility of therapeutic cloning of human tissues 11 or reproductive cloning to produce human fetuses national and international responses to human cloning 12 future therapeutic applications of cloning methods 14 the way ahead 15 conclusions 17.
The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning. Human cloning can refer to human reproductive cloning, where the embryo is transferred to a human womb and brought to term, whereas human nonreproductive cloning is the creation of an embryo that. While doing this he talks about the individual and societal repercussions, what. While research continues to be carried out in this field, lets find out more about whats human cloning.
A matter of much debate in current society is whether human cloning should be allowed so that infertile couples could have the opportunity to have genetically related children, give people the chance of life after death, and open the way. The cell divides and forms a population of identical cells cell clones. Reproductive human cloning is a form of asexual reproduction done in a lab, not by a sperm fertilizing an egg. Bender, publisher bruno leone, executive editor bonnie szumski, editorial director stuart b. However, over thousands of years, history, culture, and technology has slowly laid out the foundation of life. A brief history of cloning 7 recent development of cloning research on animals 10 what are the ethical issues regarding human cloning. All three panelists commended the decision of the state advisory committee to deal separately with the issues of human cloning and stem cell research. The report begins with a fascinating history of cloning before moving on to the ethical issues raised by its applications, beginning with the use of cloning to create children. Human cloning will redefine families 77 glenn mcgee 12. The advent of cloning animals has created a maelstrom of social concern about the ethical issues associated with the possibility of cloning humans. The ethics of human cloning and stem cell research markkula.
The ethics of human cloning william dudley, editor. The ethical implications of human cloning harvard university. For example, if an animal is cloned, it should be kept in mind that health of the animal should not be affected. The ethics of human cloning in the beginning, god created earth, thus creating man and woman. A few more cautious voices were heard, both suggesting some possible benefits from the. Taking the the nuclei of a cell and putting in the egg from a mother. There are several ways human cloning could be used to address the shortfall of organs and tissues, and each raises different ethical concerns. Cell cloning one cell is placed into the dish or well by itself. Issues discussed at the workshop include definitional language, concerns regarding egg donation, cloning and research procedures, regulatory. He was the scientist who cloned the sheep dolly in scotland. People have very different views of what is natural. Perspectives on human cloning are theoretical, as human therapeutic and reproductive cloning are not. In this briefing we use the term human cloning to mean reproductive cloning ie. Human cloning may refer to therapeutic cloning, particularly the cloning of embryonic cells to obtain organs for transplantation or for treating injured nerve cells and other health purposes.
Indeed, the commission itself is unable to agree at this time on all the ethical issues that surround the issue of cloning human beings in this manner. Whether it be to actually clone a human to raise as a child, or for medical purposes, i do not think that cloning should be allowed to take place. Human cloning more typically refers to reproductive cloning, the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer scnt to obtain eggs that could develop into adult individuals. Two religion panelists, suzanne holland and laurie zoloth, are co editors of the human embryonic stem cell debate. Embryo cloning still depends on a human egg from a woman and sperm from a man. Cloning is where a cell is taken from an animal or human and the nucleus is combined with an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed, in order to create an egg which starts to divide to create if it survives implantation in the womb an identical twin.
The ethics of human cloning and stem cell research. Done through artificial embryo twinning or somatic cell nuclear transfer 9. From this point of view, it raises profound ethical, social. Apr 24, 2014 human cloning, therefore, is the asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being. Countries like australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. There are some ethical issues about the livestock and plants also. How does therapeutic cloning differ from reproductive cloning. Not only do we not have enough eggs for this practice, but to harvest them from woman could cause harmful effects to their bodies like them being unable to reproduce in the future and in some. One can argue that god did not intend cloning to be done. The legal and ethical issues of cloning that make it. The health assembly first considered the subject of human cloning in.
Ever since the advent of cloning, there have been arguments for and against this process. Cloning is where a cell is taken from an animal or human and the nucleus is combined with an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed, in order to create an egg which starts to divide to create if it survives implantation in the womb an identical twin of the animal or human from which the cell was taken. Human cloning, therefore, is the asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being. But we have not attempted to address the issue of whether cloning, if it were found to be. It examines the extent to which human cloning is relevantly continuous with already familiar ethical contexts and issues. These animals should give benefit to the producers. Yes, human cloning is the next challenge for scientists after dolly, the cloned sheep was born in 1996.
Religious and ethical issues produced by the berkeley electronic press, 1998. Aug 07, 2001 most mainstream scientists are set against attempts at reproductive human cloning, including ian wilmut, the british embryologist who led the team which cloned dolly the sheep, and richard gardner. A particular worry is the possibility that the genetic material used from the adult will continue to age so that the genes in a newborn baby clone could be say 30 years old or more. Legalize human cloning is in the heart of the debate world, was proposed legalizing. Jun 18, 2015 example of cloning dolly the cloned sheep1996 8. Would it be morally correct to permit one team to boost its athletes to a state.
Under what conditions would this principle be acceptable. The ethics towards the human cloning are very controversial. When the ethical concerns are clearly examined, however, many of them turn out to be. However, it also introduces the potential for physical and psychosocial harm to human beings. Cloning is a dominant topic under the broader category of biotechnology. Theological discourse about human cloning has adopted either of two methods and often both of practical reasoning 2.
While evolving a policy on cloning there are several ethical questions that must be considered. Human cloning, homo sapiens, legal implication, religion. Of cloned embryos, humans and posthumans yale law school. While many of these views are religious in origin, some of the questions raised by cloning are faced by secular perspectives as well. Human cloning, as many of you are quite aware, is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human being. Department of life sciences indiana state university, usa. In bioethics, the ethics of cloning refers to a variety of ethical positions regarding the practice and possibilities of cloning, especially human cloning. In addition, some people are in favor of human cloning as they see it as a solution to infertility female infertility.
Here are three reasons why we should say no to human cloning disadvantages. Keeping up with the cloneses issues in human cloning received and accepted 16 september 1998 abstract. An overview of human cloning the center for bioethics. Japans cabinet council for science and technology policy voted on july 23, 2004 to adopt. Although, we have made numerous scientific advances with technology over time in regards to cloning mammals, still cloning humans is an unjust act. According to ioms, ordinary human cloning, in which the nucleus of a living somatic cell from an individual is placed ai ethicshuman cloning int 7904 3. Moral and ethical issues of human cloning philosophy essay. In its human cloning and human dignity study in 2002, the presidents council on bioethics in the united states observed that efforts to clone a human would be unethical at this time because of safety concerns and the likelihood of harm to those involved. John gurdon, a british scientist, reported the first successful cloning of frogs using nuclei from adult frogs transplanted into enucleated eggs. Aug 05, 2012 in its human cloning and human dignity study in 2002, the presidents council on bioethics in the united states observed that efforts to clone a human would be unethical at this time because of safety concerns and the likelihood of harm to those involved.
The ethical implications of human clones have been. The news media and the human cloning debate 15 patrick d. Church on most social issues, and their views on cloning are no different. I am sure some ethicists may grow queasy at the number of cells that must be d.
These methods are less controversial as they no human lives are lost through them. Miller, managing editor william dudley, book editor ethics of human cloning all 21104 1. There is great public concern with the ethics of human cloning. Most mainstream scientists are set against attempts at reproductive human cloning, including ian wilmut, the british embryologist who led the. All human cloning is immoral and should 57 be banned the vatican 9. Scientific and medical aspects of human reproductive cloning ncbi. World health organization reproductive cloning of human. Should researchers be free to continue cloning research. I will here mainly discuss the apparent ethical concerns related to human reproductive cloning. Whether it be to actually clone a human to raise as a child, or for medical purposes, i do not think that cloning should be. Pdf the ethical issues of human cloning ariel brown.
No one is advocating that clones should be developed to birthat least not nowbut scientists are advocating the creation and destruction of cloned human embryos before they are born. Biomedicine strasburg proposed concerns with this scientific phenomenon and the experimentation on human. Ethical issues in animal cloning 328 abstract the issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. In the case of the sheep cloning process, it would seem likely that many human embryos would be lost as the technique is improved. The ethical implications of human cloning spring 2005 volume 48, number 2 243 it might be replied that cloning and genetic engineering are in principle no different from other ways in which parents go to great lengths to produce children of a certain kind, or designer children. Sep 22, 2015 other animals raises ethical issues, this article focuses on human beings. I am also against human cloning, due to the fact the cloning process used on dolly. Many religious groups are opposed to the idea and have many reasons for this, while there are also many benefits of human cloning. The moral problem with reproductive cloning lies not in its asexual character,but in its assault on the understanding of children as gifts rather than possessions,or projects of our will,or vehicles for our happiness. Ethical issues of human cloning pdf cloning bioethics. The safety of the process hundreds of cells fail to develop succesfully. A fundamental argument is that cloning is ethically wrong and various religious groups have rejected it saying that cloning is equivalent to playing god. Essay on what are the ethical issues of human cloning cram. The idea of cloning another human being is repulsive to almost every person.
Cloning humans may be impossible 54 philip cohen 8. This issue has been a hot topic for the past decade after dolly the sheep was cloning in scotland. To its credit, the report describes in a fairminded way the supposed benefits of cloningtoproducechildren. Human cloning creation of a genetically identical human being, human cell or human tissue. This does not include creating embryos for research through cloning, which creates a related but reproductive cloning ethical and social issues january 2004. Jul 21, 2015 the french parliament on july 9, 2004 adopted a new bioethics law that allows embryonic stem cell research but considers human cloning a crime against the human species. In some cases, cloning human beings is good for pure genetic purposes and possibly furthering humanity into new.1432 6 536 225 510 1345 29 1480 1620 1422 1561 1031 1392 642 1460 1251 1484 608 931 392 92 16 1211 757 1333 1597 165 1308 711 933 975 1467 1047 1293 441 1445